During the Age of Discovery between the 15th and 17th centuries, European countries started to sail to initiate geographical discovery, and discovered the Americas and the routes to East Asia. Spain and Portugal were among the explorers who were active on the seas during the earliest stage. Lisbon and Porto, two cities in Portugal, even became international metropolises attributed to Portugal’s maritime achievement. Portugal established an extensive trade network spanning from Macao, Malaysia, India, and the Iberian Peninsula to Africa and South America. Colonial rules, meanwhile, were implemented. Spain also established its colonial empire in the Americas, Africa and Asia. When travelling in Macao and Latin American countries, it is common to see traces of profound influences Spain and Portugal have on their cultures, including food, architecture and languages.